🥦 Vitamin Levels Test

Vitamins are substances present in food that your body needs to function normally1. There are 13 essential vitamins2-5: Vitamin A, B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12 and folate), Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K.

Read More About the Components

Normal Range: 200-1100 pg/mL

Vitamin B12 is important for DNA synthesis, making essential amino acids like methionine, producing red blood cells and maintaining brain and heart health6,7. Foods rich in vitamin B12 include animal products like meat, poultry, eggs and milk2. Vitamin B12 deficiencies can be due to insufficient dietary intake, inadequate absorption or pernicious anemia3. Deficiencies are linked to the production of red blood cells that are larger than normal (megaloblastic anemia), neurological dysfunction due to myelin loss, loss of bone mass and inflammation6. Vegetarians and the elderly are at higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiencies7.

Normal Range: 30-100 ng/mL

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that comes in two forms8: vitamin D2 (found in dietary supplements, fortified foods9 and mushrooms exposed to sunlight10) and vitamin D3 (produced in the skin by sunlight and found in foods, such as fish, organ meats, egg yolks3, dietary supplements and fortified foods 9). Both forms are used by the body in the same way; the only difference between the two is the structure of their side chains11. Vitamin D is important for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus12. Poor absorption of these minerals due to vitamin D deficiency could lead to decreased bone mineralization, osteopenia, and osteoporosis8. In the elderly, a vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for falls and fractures13. Those who get inadequate sun exposure or have darker skin are at higher risk for a vitamin D deficiency, as are those who are unable to absorb dietary fat, and those who are obese or who have recently had a gastric bypass surgery8.

Vitamin D2 is the form of vitamin D that is found in dietary supplements, fortified foods9and mushrooms exposed to sunlight10. Vitamin D2 functions as a prohormone and it’s converted in the liver to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D11.

Vitamin D3 is the form of vitamin D produced in the skin by sunlight and found in foods, such as fish, organ meats, egg yolks3, dietary supplements and fortified foods9. Vitamin D3 functions as a prohormone and it’s converted in the liver to its active form,1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D11.

Learn About the Biomarkers in Each System

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